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 Potassium Permanganate (PP)

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PostSubject: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeSun Jun 22, 2008 5:39 pm

Basics:

Potassium Permangante

Dark purple
Very effective treatment for almost all parasites and effective against bad bacteria
Very strong and dangerous if you overdose
Not toxic to plants
Disinfectant for newly purchased plants and new fish
Kills good bacteria and very harmful to bio filter
Have to do a 30% water change after each treatment
2.56g / 1000 liters
A dip of 8 grams per 80 litres for 5 minutes (although we do not recommend a dip as it might burn the gills)
If the fish are small or scaleless(doitsu), decrease the dosage by 30%.
Note: Toxic to goldfish.



Article by Dr Erik Johnson

"Potassium permanganate can be extremely effective against Flukes, Trichodina,
Bacterial Ulceration and Fungal infections. Since this spectrum fills in the gaps where Salt seems to falter, it should be considered highly as an excellent compound to balance with Salt in any well-prepared drug cabinet.
Caution must be used; however, because the toxic level of this compound is only slightly higher than the therapeutic level. Dosing must be exact, and so should the volume estimate of the system.
For years, now, I have been a strong supporter of the use of Salt as a mainstay in the treatment of fish parasites. It's safe and effective, and it does not harm the filter bacteria. Looking at it closely, it has a lot to recommend it. But... Salt falls down when we confront Flukes, and sometimes when we face Asian Trichodina. Salt fails to clear more than 60% of Fluke infestations, (although it has cleared 30-40% of cases simply by inhibiting the reproduction of some species of flukes over the three-week treatment period).
With Trichodina, since there are so many strains, we see some types coming into the country on imported fish that resist our standard 0.3% salt solution. They clear readily at 0.6% salt, but some folks get just plain nervous dosing salt that high.
Finally, salt does not address significant bacterial or fungal invaders, in spite of its benefits as a tonic or osmotic bandage during bacterial and fungal crises. Because of these short-comings in salt's performance, it was with great interest that I began to do some experiments with, and research on: Potassium permanganate (PP).
Potassium permanganate (chemical formula: KMnO4) is a caustic alkali that dissociates in water to form the permanganate ion (MnO4-) and also into Manganese dioxide (MnO2) along with the liberation of nascent (elemental) Oxygen molecules. It's primary effect then, is powerfully oxidative. As a powerful waterborne treatment with nominal residual hazard, Potassium permanganate was exempted from registration with or by the EPA and has been placed on Deferred Regulatory Status for the time being by the FDA. It is thus legal for use in food fish and fisheries. There may be other compounds with similar spectrum against bacterial pathogens, but they have not "gotten the nod" from FDA and EPA (examples Hyamine, Chloramine-T and Roccal).
It is reported that the permanganate ion is the toxic "active-agent" that kills parasites by destroying the cell wall via oxidation. Other literature shows how the Manganese dioxide molecule forms protein complexes on the surface epithelium, conferring the characteristic brown color we see on fish and fins, but also these protein complexes form on the respiratory structures of the fish parasites, resulting in their death.
No matter how you slice it, a review of the literature shows an impressive confirmed kill list. Saprolegnia, Costia, Chilodinella, Ich, Trichodina, both Gyrodactylus and Dactylogyrus, Argulus, Piscicola, Lernea, Columnaris and other bacteria including Edwardsiella, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, plus Algae and Ambiphrya.
Unfortunately, it is not so exciting as it might at first appear. Argulus, Lernea and Piscicola reportedly respond only when Potassium permanganate is used as a dip, (most often: 10-25 ppm for 90 minutes). Other reports show that Costia and Chilodinella also resist Potassium permanganate unless used as a dip. More work should be done on this.
Potassium permanganate as a dip is highly caustic, and in my experience results in fish with coagulative necrosis (white margins of dead-tissue) on the fin tips. Severe gill damage can result, causing death as many as several weeks later in dipped fish, to the dismay of the collector or retailer. To further discourage the use of Potassium permanganate as a dip, it has been shown that Goldfish are more sensitive to dipping than some other species. For these reasons and more, I recommend that we discard Potassium permanganate as a dip. Too many losses have occurred as a result of Potassium permanganate being used as a dip, and the therapeutic effect is not that much better than the much safer 2-4 ppm continuous treatment.
I should like to take this opportunity to describe Potassium permanganate's strongest suits:
Potassium permanganate is very effective at the annihilation of Flukes. Both Gyrodactylus and Dactylogyrus were cleared within 8 hours at 3 ppm in closed holding systems. Re-infection can occur, and so it is recommended that a second treatment be done to these fish 2-3 days later at 2 ppm. In any event, care must be taken that a full concentration be maintained for 10-12 hours.
See information on dosing, later. Potassium permanganate is extremely effective in the reduction of Columnaris, Aeromonas, Edwardsiella bacterial, and also in true Fungal infections. It is with excitement that I write to you about my trials with Potassium permanganate in holding systems containing fish with bacterial Ulcers that were opened and then inoculated by Flukes. Very often, these systems are crowded, and there is a high accumulation of nitrogenous waste (organic matter) on the vat floor. Flukes have had ample opportunity to cross infect all specimens, and bacterial Ulcers could merit or demand injection. Application of Potassium permanganate in these systems simultaneously achieves the following things:
1. Annihilation of the flukes
2. Disinfection of the wounds.
3. Reduction (by 99% in some cases) of all Aeromonad and other gram negative bacteria in the environment.
4. Destruction of Saprolegnia which is a common secondary invader of Ulcers
5. Massive oxidation of organic material which then can be removed with prudent water changes and filtration.
After two treatments three days apart, we see fish with healing Ulcers that are effectively parasite free, in water with considerably less organic material. Finally, a strong suit of Potassium permanganate is in the treatment of "Winter Fungus" which, depending upon the actual cause, may be either Columnaris bacteria (such as Cytophaga psychrophilia) or in other cases may be true fungus like Saprolegnia. Regardless of the true cause, non diagnosed but clinically affected specimens can be cleared of "cotton-wool" lesions of mouth, body and fin with these two applications of Potassium permanganate.
Potassium permanganate's effect on ciliated protozoans is the subject of a lot of writing and research. It is generally agreed that Potassium permanganate's strongest suit in the protozoan classes is the clearance of Trichodina. This is a good thing, too, because Trichodina is one of very few ciliated protozoan for which salt has been incompletely and universally effective.
The significance of what you have just read is as simple as this: Potassium permanganate picks up where salt leaves off, taking out Trichodina and Flukes which salt might have missed, and extending the kill into Fungus and also the disinfection and resolution of superficial bacterial Ulcerations.
There are several other applications where Potassium permanganate might be of some utility for the aquaculturist or hobbyist. In shipping situations, a concentration of no more than 2 ppm has been found to effectively reduce Columnaris and other bacterial infection, as well as limiting and stopping parasitisms that so often gain the "upper-hand" in transported fish. Safe with all but the smallest fry, even fingerlings can be transported at 2ppm Potassium permanganate. It is advised; however, that ponds containing fry not be treated with Potassium permanganate. The reason is not so much a concern for toxicity, but that waters devoid of phytoplankton or macrophytes may result in the starvation of fry.
Catfish should be spared Potassium permanganate levels above 2 ppm in any application.
Another function of Potassium permanganate in aquacultural systems has been the detoxification of applied toxins. Rotenone and Antimycin are piscicides used for clearing out unwanted fish from waters intended for aquaculture, and rather than wait out the effective period of these two compounds, it is advantageous to use Potassium permanganate to break down these chemicals.
Recommendations for the dosage in this situation show that the basic Potassium permanganate demand of the system, determined by the "Jar technique" presented later, are enough to detoxify Rotenone and Antimycin. Another way to do this is to simply apply 2-3 ppm for the full 10-12 hours. Research has shown that this is sufficient to neutralize the therapeutic concentrations of Rotenone or Antimycin. Finally, another author suggests the use of Potassium permanganate at the same dose as the applied piscicide. For example, if Rotenone were used at 2 ppm then you would use 2 ppm Potassium permanganate as well. It would be my advice to treat using the jar technique to determine the Potassium permanganate demand as described in the dosing section, and then to exceed that amount by a full 2 ppm. Especially where fish to be stocked are quite valuable, e.g. Koi."

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PostSubject: Peter Waddingtons view on PP   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeMon Jun 23, 2008 6:56 am

Hi,
This is a copy and paste article by Peter Waddington on his views on PP -

"PP is a vital part of the Koi keepers medicine chest as it is the only chemical which will succesfully eradicate Trichodina and the deadly Costia. The dosage rate for this is 1.5grams per ton and Analar grade PP is best for this. I have never known PP kill or damage any Koi when used correctly at this dosage rate - we have often used it at 2.0grams per ton in filtered ponds to eradicate stubborn Costia infestation with no adverse effects.

However it should be treated with respect (as should all chemicals) - as James says the EXACT volume of water to be treated should be known - guesswork is not recommended! An overdose of PP can be lethal.

Some years ago I witnessed newly harvested Jumbo Koi at Hiroi Seiji (Kokugyokan) in Ojiya. The Koi were transported from his main mud pond in Yomogihira and placed into outdoor concrete ponds at his facility. He dosed the ponds with PP at 1.5grams per ton and lost seven Koi before he removed them from the ponds and put them into his indoor ponds worse for wear. Later I mentioned this to Toshio Sakai who commented that the highest rate of PP for Koi just harvested from a mud pond should be no more than 0.5grams per ton - only after the Koi have been in indoor concrete ponds for some time can the 1.5grams per ton rate be used.

Toshio Sakai still doses all his ponds regularly (weekly) with PP at 0.5grams as a disinfectant and does the same with Koi coming back to Isawa from Koi shows.

Whilst PP has to command respect from the user it can be used in many short term bath rates such as 10grams per ton for 90 minutes which will even eradicate flukes.

On one occasion I witnessed a situation in Japan at Fujio Oomo's facility when his tategoi tosai were suffering with a bad infestation of trichodina. Nogami came to assist him and recommended the treatment and dosage rates to use to eradicate the parasite. I watched as he added 20grams PP per ton to the pond which immediately turned the water black - not purple he then watched the pond and waited. After around 30 minutes he dropped the water level of the pond by standpipe to half level and then added - wait for it - another 20grams PP per ton. He then waited for the tosai to come to the surface gasping before he dropped the level once more when there was just enough water to cover the backs of the tosai. He then immediately filled the pond with fresh water to normal level. We returned the following morning and all the Koi were in perfect condition!

Short term dips can also be effective:-
1.0gram PP to one litre of water for 30 seconds or 1.0gram PP to 5 litres of water for 3 minutes.

Sorry to hear about the wipe out that Jim posted but it must, most certainly, be an overdose situation that is at fault. Once again, PP used correctly is vital in Koi keeping.

Waddy"


Interesting,
Regards,
Chris
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeTue Jul 21, 2009 7:45 am

I have done my third PP treatment last night but this morning the water is far more brown that the previous treatments. After first treatment I have replaced 25% of the water and after second treatment about 10%. Do I need to replace more or do I leave it like this. Can’t see the bottom today
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeTue Jul 21, 2009 10:22 am

This is an copy and paste on a recent discussion at Koi Bito

Good! So this is a great point to get up to speed, Brutus.

PP, what is it ?--- answer--- a powerful oxidant
Hydrogen peroxide what is it? Yep I know you know this one---an oxidant


So what you are trying to do is stop an oxidative reaction with another
oxidant. And like many things that Roddy speaks about he is ALWAYS dead
accurate on the chemistry aspects ( I mean Impeccible in his accuracy)
and about 90% INACCURATE in his biological conclusions!

So we see chemically fried gill filaments as a result to two oxidative
baths. When one well known Florida vet backed off the use of two
oxidants in a row after thinking about it she was ignored. When another
did, he was ignored. And so Roddy has taught a whole nother group of
newbies about the use of two oxidants in spite of two aquatic vets
advising against it.
The reason this stands is fish don't die from this on the spot. Just
like fish don't die often in winter under ice. They show the effect
'later' and often in a dynamic where the beginner never thinks about
the fish's gills or the initial cause, as the real origin of the
problem.
Koi are remarkably tough creatures- they can live quite nicely with 40%
of their gill surface destroyed ( think human kidney's here- you only
need one or a 50% surface to survive).
But a life time in a closed system is enough for a koi's gills.- Add
chlorine burns, Chronic PP burns and hydrogen perxiode burns and you
hurry along opportunistic problems.
You know there are no other fish hobbies that would be telling
hobbyists to pour in PP to ramp the ORP to 550 mV and then hit them
with hydrogen peroxide-- but in the koi hobby there are-- only because
koi can hide the damage so well. But then again, that may just be an
opinion? Potassium Permanganate (PP) Wink
Opppss but wait! Thom B did an extensive study on this and found a high
degree of gill hyperplasia in the fish subjected to this! NI 2002.
Brutus the 'milder' recommendation you get from Roddy today is a direct
result of my pounding him on the old KoiVet board every time there was
a problem from this practice. His current dose recommendation is due to
him learning the hard way from other's disasters and the impression I
left him with when I insisted he use an ORP meter to monitor reactions.
Until then, he determined the dose need by color!

So when you suggest that Roddy is about the science--- I say,not in the
least! He talks science and he knows chemistry like no other on these
boards but he's an absolute blind guy when it comes to the fish's
physiology. Sorry, I like the guy, he's a lovely guy, but it's true- he
runs way beyond his headlights and newbies have paid a price for a
decade now.

Dick is a very good guy and knows quite a bit about koi, no question or argument there.
JR
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeTue Jul 21, 2009 11:56 am

Marius,

doen 10% water "changes" elke 3dae todat die water weer skoon is, moet niks ingooi nie.

Oor JR se siening sal ek my nie uitlaat nie, "Yank bly maar 'Yank"
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeTue Jul 21, 2009 1:07 pm

Beteken dit ek moet liewer heeltemal stop met PP? Soos genoem het ek reeds gisteraand my derde behandeling toegedien. UV's is ook nou al vir week af en dam in vol sonlig
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeTue Jul 21, 2009 1:43 pm

Nee Marius, wat Pieter seker bedoel by "niks" is dat jy nie Hydrogen Peroxide of iets anders moet bygooi nie na die tyd met verwysing van JR se artikel?

My advies is, doen weer 'n 10% water change, en gooi weer PP. (Ek gooi 2.5, Pieter gooi 3g/1000 l) Indien die water weer bruin word binne 6 ure, wag weer twee dae en doen nog 'n behandeling en 'n finale water change van 30%.

Die PP begin eers werklik op die derde of vierde behandeling regtig effektief werk. Die PP tydens die eerste en tweede behandeling werk in 'n groot mate uit op organiese materiaal in jou pond.

Na jou laaste behandeling sal die water binne dae kristal helder word.

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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeTue Jul 21, 2009 2:24 pm

Hi Maruis
Ek glo die probleem is by die gebruik van Hydrogen Peroxide om PP uit te haal
My persoonlikke ondervinding met Hydrogen Peroxide was minder aangenaam en het tot gevolg dat visse baie geflash het. Ek het weens onkunde 'n 40% konsentraat gebruik (dit was al wat my apteek beskikbaar gehad het) more is better. LOL Ek is seker ek het erens gelees waar Paul noem dat 5% spaarsaam gebruik moet word, dit was te laat vir my. Ek het ook op plaaslikke Koi web tuiste gesien dat die water vir 6 ure lank pienk gehou moet word om effektief te wees, ek is nie so seker hiervan nie, die die 2de en 3de toediening behoort meer effektief te wees sodra die organiese materiaal in dam minder word.
Ek glo ook PP speel baie belangrikke rol, maar persoonlik verkies ek om PP dip te doen (spoel agterna af met skoon water, alvorens ek die Koi sal terug plaas in dam) as om die hele dam te doen. EK verstaan daar is tye wat die PP van 'n Dam die enigste opsie is. Indien ek die dam moet PP sal ek Dag een 1.5, Dag drie 2.0, en Dag vyf 2.0g/1000lt beperk sodat dit self oplos en met water "changes" uitgehaal kan word om die gebruik van Hydrogen Peroxide te vermy a.g.v. die moontlikheid van langtermyn skade.

Met PP dip stop ek die proses die oomblik wat die koi begin rondspring of ongemak toon. Ek se nie ek weet beter as ander nie, ek deel net my ondervinding. You be the Judge.Idea

Pieter Waddington en Jr kom al 'n lang pad met Koi
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 22, 2009 11:25 am

Dankie vir al die advies. Water is vandag weer mooi helder en sal vannaand die laaste PP doen en teen naweek van die water vervang.
Dankie vir almal se advies oor die HP want die sterkte wat ek het is ook 40%, en dit sou dwaas wees om 75ml daarvan in dam te gooi ( moeilik om eweredig te versprei)

Het dit net vir noodgeval gehou as water peink sou bly maar my dam is in aande 6-7 behandel en tot so +-10uur gemonitor - Steeds pers en dan bruin in oggende 6uur.

Ek moes my hele dam behandel aangesien ek reeds 3 groot visse in die laaste 3.5maande verloor het. Is maar snaaks dat die mooies altyd vrek, en die visse wat ek van ontslae wou raak oorleef het
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 22, 2009 1:22 pm

Marius,

lees bietjie hier:

Quote :
Hydrogen Peroxide - by Doc Johnson

After a potassium permanganate treatment, you can turn the water back to crystal clear. Be careful though, treating with peroxide prevents the successful deployment of Potassium permanganate the following day!

Hydrogen Peroxide is applied the the complete CONCLUSION of a potassium permanganate treatment. The reason is: that you do not want interference with potency of potassium treatment on subsequent days, so, if possible; wait until you are finally DONE with potassium before treating... However, if the water is OPAQUE brown - and you cannot see the fish, you need to decolorize at once and sacrifice the next few days' treatments.

Regular hydrogen peroxide from the grocery store is used. DOSE: One quart of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 3% per five THOUSAND gallons of water.

Just so you know, our initial dosing was done at a mammoth level: one CUP per one hundred gallons, and we used like six gallons in a five thousand gallon pond with safe results, BUT, and this is a big but; testing to determine the MINIMUM dose needed brought the effective successful dose down to the 1quart/5000G level.

Decolorization requires up to an hour depending upon how your pond circulates, how much KMnO4 is in there, and how much peroxide you used.. Remember that your potassium will fail the next day or two. If you attempt to overdose and "beat" the previous day's peroxide, you could kill your fish. So, don't decolorize with peroxide until you're REALLY done with the KMnO4 -

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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 22, 2009 7:47 pm

Marius Bezuidenhout wrote:
Water is vandag weer mooi helder en sal vannaand die laaste PP doen en teen naweek van die water vervang.
Volgens die Nuus is dit ook maar 'n groot risiko in BFN, die water vervanging !!!!!. Twisted Evil
Ek sal maar moelik slaap met PP in my dam, ek is bly dit het tot dusver vir jou gewerk.
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeThu Jul 23, 2009 8:42 am

Hi Bobby

Ooops, ek bietjie ver van Bloem af, wat was daar in die nuus oor die water in daardie area????

Groete
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeThu Jul 23, 2009 9:39 am

Hi Maruis
Seker maar die norm, swak water en riool probleme, die gemeenskap wat die Mislikkepaliteit weer hof toe neem op 18 Augustus op 2 aanklagte van die oortreding van die Nasionale water wet.
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 29, 2009 9:58 am

Just to report back

All fish survived the PP treatment and I drained my 4000L filter chambers and sucked some water out of settlement chamber after the treatment. The water became crystal clear the next day.

We are still stuck with unhealthy water supply to the city and the cold fronts from the Cape but I overcome my fear for PP (hopefully)

Thanks for all the advise
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 29, 2009 10:17 am

Marius Bezuidenhout wrote:
Dankie vir almal se advies oor die HP want die sterkte wat ek het is ook 40%, en dit sou dwaas wees om 75ml daarvan in dam te gooi ( moeilik om eweredig te versprei)

Hi Marius, is jy seker jy het 40% en nie 40 Vol (40 volumes)? Ek het nog nie 40% gesien nie maar 10, 20 of 40 volume is algemeen.

Die sterkte van die oplossing HP word gewoondlik beskryf as volume.
20 Vol = 6%
40 Vol = 12%

Terloops, onthou om baie min kos te gooi totdat jou dam nou weer in volle swang is na die PP behandeling. Jou goeie bakterie sou 'n knou gekry het.

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Marius Bezuidenhout

Marius Bezuidenhout

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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 29, 2009 11:21 am

Dankie Paul

Dit is ‘n belangrike punt wat jy gemaak het. Mens kan maklik die verkeerde sterkte ingooi aangesien daar ‘n groot verskil in 40% en 40 vol is. Sal dat Louise vannaand net dubbel seker maak of dit 40 vol is. In die elektroniese bedryf gebruik hul wel 40% om koper van elektroniese borde af te vreet wanneer ‘printed circuit boards’ gemaak word. Meng dit met swembad suur, en bietjie water. Die mengsel veroorsaak dat stukke velle van jou hand afkom as daar direkte kontak is en nie enige apteek verkoop so ‘n sterk mengsel nie.

Ek het glad nie HP in water gevoeg nie en dam se helderheid is nou pragtig. Dalk het dit ook te doen met die feit dat settlement chamber elke 2e dag uitgepomp is en vars water bygevoeg is. Die water temp wissel so tussen 8 en 11 grade in die koue en vir ‘n week lank was visse nie gevoer nie. Bao Bio bygevoeg en monitor water gereeld aangesien ek ‘n nitrite spike verwag soos in die verlede toe ek elke 3maande aan filters gewerk het. Dit kom gewoonlik voor so 3weke nadat filter begin is.

Ter byvoeging van wat jy genoem het:

Volume is the amount of oxygen that is contained in a given amount of peroxide. For example, 3% hydrogen peroxide is V10 or 10 volume, because it will release 10 times it’s volume in oxygen. One pint of 3% hydrogen peroxide will release 10 pints of oxygen as it breaks down. Gee, now there is something to think about. Of course, V20 will release twice as much oxygen, 20 times its volume. This is getting pretty fantastic, and we are only up to 6% hydrogen peroxide here….

Read further:

http://www.using-hydrogen-peroxide.com/hairdressing-peroxide.html
http://www.landrights.com/Hydrogen_Peroxide.htm
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bobby

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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 29, 2009 1:50 pm

Hi Maruis
Your'e second link is a mouthfull bounce my friend Piet and me could qualify lol! .
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 29, 2009 3:08 pm

Very interesting. HP appears to be an amazing product, and a cure for a lot of things, but I am a bit sceptical about all the "amazing results" as claimed by non professionals.

One of my very good friends suffered from asthma for years and the doctors could do nothing. After start drinking HP against the advice of her doctors, she alledged that it cured/controlled her asthma completely. I witnessed the great improvement myself, but, she recently passed away.... after an asthma attack.

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Pieter J de Villiers

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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 29, 2009 3:48 pm

Al wat ek kan se is: JA SWAER! study

Marius,

ek stel voor dat jy nie jou vis voer voordat die water 16*C is nie, begin dan met 'n derde wat jy gewoonlik voer. Op 18*C die helfte en op 20*C nornale hoeveelheid voer.
Die nitrite sal nie sommer op gaan nie, indien wel.................gooi sout!
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sas



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PostSubject: RE:   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 29, 2009 4:12 pm

May i ask what is "HP"?

Is it a medicine?

Thanks.
sas
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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 29, 2009 4:21 pm

Hydrogen Peroxide, and not that stuff that Wayne puts on his eggs.

See the seperate topic of Hydrogen Peroxide under the heading "Medication."

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sas



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PostSubject: Re: Potassium Permanganate (PP)   Potassium Permanganate (PP) Icon_minitimeWed Jul 29, 2009 10:36 pm

Admin wrote:
Hydrogen Peroxide, and not that stuff that Wayne puts on his eggs.

See the seperate topic of Hydrogen Peroxide under the heading "Medication."

Thanks for your reply.
sas
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